If he wins a no-confidence vote in the government, the Labour leader plans to delay Brexit, call a snap election and campaign for another referendum, the BBC reported.
Newly-appointed Prime Minister Boris Johnson said he wants a deal with the European Union (EU), but insists the UK must leave the bloc by October 31 "do or die".
Corbyn outlined his plan in a letter on Wednesday, saying the caretaker government would be "strictly time-limited".
The opposition leader said that he would seek to call a no-confidence vote at the "earliest opportunity when we can be confident of success".
To defeat the government he would have to secure the backing of a majority of MPs.
"This government has no mandate for no-deal, and the 2016 EU referendum provided no mandate for no-deal.
"Following a successful vote of no confidence in the government, I would then, as Leader of the Opposition, seek the confidence of the House for a strictly time-limited temporary government with the aim of calling a general election, and securing the necessary extension of Article 50 to do so."
In response to the letter, a Downing Street spokesman said: "There is a clear choice: Either Jeremy Corbyn as prime minister who will overrule the referendum and wreck the economy, or Boris Johnson as prime minister who will respect the referendum and deliver more money for the NHS and more police on our streets," the BBC reported.
"This government believes the people are the masters and votes should be respected. Jeremy Corbyn believes that the people are the servants and politic can cancel public votes they don't like."
( With inputs from IANS )