"Useful discussions with US Special Representative @US4AfghanPeace Zalmay Khalilzad. Provided a comprehensive update on the situation in Afghanistan. Shared views on how we could work together effectively," Jaishankar tweeted.
Khalilzad was in the Indian capital as part of a hurricane tour to "build international consensus" on the Taliban peace talks.
"I will travel to #Delhi later today for pre-scheduled meetings to further build international consensus in support of the #AfghanPeaceProcess," Khalilzad tweeted on Monday.
Khalilzad said he has made "excellent progress" in his talks with the Taliban in Doha over the last few days.
Khalilzad made the announcement in a tweet on Monday in which he added that he had also built excellent progress in Kabul last week.
The US envoy said that in his talks with the Taliban in Qatar, he has focused on the remaining issues in completing a potential deal with the Taliban that would allow for a conditions-based troop withdrawal.
India has been a key stakeholder in the peace and reconciliation process in Afghanistan.
His visit to India comes as senior US diplomat Alice Wells arrived in Islamabad to hold key bilateral talks with Pakistani leaders on the peace process in Afghanistan.
Wells, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for South and Central Asian Affairs, is on a five-day visit to Pakistan.
( With inputs from IANS )